Why Did Eating Horsemeat Become Taboo?

BY KEVIN KAMPWIRTH | FEBRUARY 28, 2013 | MENTALFLOSS.COM

When news broke earlier this year that a spate of European supermarkets had been selling frozen beef products adulterated with horsemeat, a large portion of the Western world collectively wretched. A couple of the products in question—frozen hamburger patties and beef lasagna—showed horse DNA at levels ranging from trace amounts up to 100 percent, and were quickly pulled from freezer cases as the slaughterhouses of origin were investigated. The plot thickened this week after inspectors in the Czech Republic reported that samples from Ikea’s voraciously consumed meatballs turned up evidence of horse DNA, prompting the Swedish mega-retailer to halt sales of its marquee offering in 14 European countries.

As EU authorities try to make sense of the scandal and call for stricter oversight of Europe’s notoriously unregulated meatpacking industry, millions of people around the world are likely wondering what the big fuss is. Despite the notion of horses as pets and companions, horsemeat is widely and willingly consumed in countries ranging from Mexico to China to Italy. So how, exactly, did eating horsemeat become taboo for the rest of us?

NEIGH IT AIN’T SO

Humans have been hunting and eating wild horses since the end of the last ice age and, along with reindeer, the meat provided a vital source of protein. As early as 4000 BCE, however, fossil records indicate the beginning of equine domestication, which likely also marks the initial shift in the way that people thought about horses. One of the earliest public excoriations of horsemeat consumption came from the Vatican in 732, when Pope Gregory III issued a ban on the practice, hoping to distance the church from what it considered a pagan predilection. Even still, horsemeat remained a dietary staple in many parts of the world, especially Europe, with both France and Germany openly bucking the papal decree in the nineteenth century.

The church’s stance undoubtedly had a lasting impact on public perception, though, and likely accounts for at least some of the broad aversion in English-speaking countries like the US, England, Ireland, Australia, and some parts of Canada. Observant Jews are also unable to eat horsemeat because, as neither a ruminant nor a cloven-hoofed animal, it isn’t kosher.

Psychologically, as horses assumed the familiar role of companions in battle and work, the idea of eating one must have become increasingly off-putting. And, although eaten by people of all classes throughout history, many cultures now associate horsemeat with penury—a last resort when beef and pork are unaffordable. The practice has never taken hold in America, but, up until 2007 when the nation’s last horse abattoir was shuttered in Illinois, thousands of horses were slaughtered and processed here annually for export.

ALL THE TASTY HORSES

So, who’s eating the equines? Figures from 2010 showed Mexico as the top producer of horsemeat for that year with 140,000 tons, followed by China (126,000 tons) and Kazakhstan (114,000 tons). Although horsemeat is still consumed in these countries, much of it is processed for export to Europe and Central Asia.

In Japan, a popular horsemeat dish called basashi is served raw, sashimi style. In both Kazakhstan and South Korea, fat from the neck meat is prized for its flavor. Belgium, France, and Germany all have long and unapologetic roots in equine cuisine, and sauerbraten was originally prepared using horse. The meat is a staple in many Northern Italian and Sicilian preparations, and is incorporated into sausages and salamis, or served dried and shredded for a snack called sfilacci, which looks like a plate of deep red vermicelli. The Dutch and Swedish prefer it sliced thin for lunchmeat.

South Americans generally shy away from eating it, but several countries, including Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, all process the meat for export. Many Canadians feel the same way about horsemeat as Americans, but horse abattoirs still operate there and it’s very popular in Quebec, where you can find it in supermarkets, and other French-influenced regions.


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Horse Slaughter Canada

Four slaughterhouses are federally licensed to slaughter horses in Canada:

• Bouvry Export Calgary Ltd. in Fort MacLeod, Alta. See  https://www.bouvrycanada.ca/ 

• Canadian Premium Meats Inc. in Lacombe, Alta. See http://www.cpmeats.com/

• Les Viandes de la Petite-Nation in St-Andre- Avellin, Que.; [517 Rang Sainte Julie E, Saint-André-Avellin, QC J0V 1W0]. No website.

• Viande Richelieu Inc. in Massueville, Que. See https://www.vianderichelieu.com/ 

Export Corridors for US Slaughterbound Horses to Canada

More importantly, here are the only designated ports of entry for slaughter-bound horses:

Canadian Port of Entry:Corresponding US Port of Entry
Kingsgate, British Columbia
250-417-2293
Eastport, Idaho
208-267-2396
Coutts, Alberta
403-344-3808
Sweetgrass, Montana
406-335-9610
North Portal, Saskatchewan
306-927-2255
Portal, North Dakota
701-926-4281
Sarnia (Point Edward), Ontario
519-332-3031
Port Huron, Michigan
517-324-5298
Windsor, Ontario
519-969-2522
Detroit, Michigan
313-226-4428
Niagara Falls (Queenston), Ontario
905-937-7434
Lewiston, New York
716-297-6203
Saint-Bernard-de-Lacolle, Quebec
450-246-4125
Champlain, New York
518-298-2191
Woodstock, New Brunswick
506-325-1960
Houlton, Maine
207-532-6099
Source: https://www.inspection.gc.ca/animal-health/humane-transport/horses/designated-border-ports/eng/1324090361423/1324310392596
Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Compiled by JANE ALLIN | January 2020

Featured Image: Slaughterbound horse in Cleburne, Texas. By Michael Mulvey, USA Today Sports.


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Horse Meat by the Numbers

A R C H I V E S

1998 — 2008


Horse Meat Production Figures Worldwide

2008 Ranked by Quantity

RankingCountryMetric TonnesType
1China197,984Fc
2Mexico72,313Fc
3Kazakhstan66,207Fc
4Argentina57,931F
5United States of America46,585Fc
6Russian Federation45,988Fc
7Mongolia38,086Fc
8Australia25,697Fc
9Brazil21,489Fc
10Poland19,760F
11Kyrgyzstan18,798Fc
12Romania12,924Fc
13Ukraine12,163Fc
14Canada11,220Fc
15Uruguay9,060Fc
16Chile8,672F
17Italy7,800F
18France7,300F
19Senegal7,194Fc
20Colombia6,202Fc
Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx

F = FAO Estimate
Fc = Calculated Data

Indigenous Horse Meat Production Figures USA, Canada & Mexico

2004 through 2008 Ranked by Quantity

YearMexicoUSACanada
200872,31346,58511,220
200772,31346,46011,220
200676,66632,57416,562
200577,26331,39820,820
200478,27222,39419,948
Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx

Production Figures in Metric Tonnes, FAO Calculated Data


Indigenous Horse Meat Production Figures USA

1998 ― 2008 Ranked by Quantity

YearRankingMetric TonnesType
2008546,585Fc
2007546,460Fc
2006632,574Fc
2005731,398Fc
2004722,394Fc
2003643,666Fc
2002735,435Fc
2001639,753Fc
2000737,725Fc
1999738,067Fc
1998825,162Fc
Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx

Fc = Calculated Data


Note: At the time of posting, this is the most recent data available from the FAO website. Please use the source link above to update these numbers.


More on Horse Slaughter

Horse Meat Images | Horse Slaughter Images | Horse Slaughter Fact Sheet | | When Horse Slaughter Comes to Town (3rd Edition) | Horse Slaughter Legislative Timeline